Beginning Programming Cayman Islands Phone Number All-In-One For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Cayman Islands Phone Number
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Storing stuff in data structures

Every programming language Cayman Islands Phone Number needs to store data. The simplest way to store data is to use a variable, but a variable can only hold one item at a time. Another limitation is that you must create enough variables to store all the data your program may need to store. Because you likely won’t know how much data your program needs to store, you need to store related data inside a data structure.Think of a data structure as a super variable that can group related data together and grow or shrink in size depending on how much data your program needs to store. Structures group multiple variables together. Arrays or lists can grow or shrink to store different amounts of data. Dictionaries, maps, or hashes identify data using a “key” value to make it easy to retrieve data quickly. Stacks and queues provide two different ways to store and retrieve data.


A single variable can only hold exactly one chunk of data at a time. However, a structure can store multiple variables inside a single variable, like this:

struct person


string name;

int, age;

}; = “Billy the Kid”;

person.age = 26;

This code defines a structure and gives it an arbitrary name of person. Inside the structure, it defines a name variable that can hold a string and an age variable that can hold an integer.

To store a string in the name variable, you need to define the structure name (person) and the string variable name to hold it (name). Thus, specifies the structure (person) and the string variable (name) to hold “Billy the Kid”.

To store an integer in the age variable, you need to define the structure name (person) and the integer variable name to hold it (age). Thus, person.age specifies the structure (person) and the integer variable (age) to hold 26.

Arrays or lists

Arrays store one type of data in a list, which is why some languages refer to arrays as lists. Arrays/lists store multiple chunks of data within a single variable name. To identify a specific chunk of data, you must reference the array/list name followed by the position of the data inside that array/list.

The position of items, stored in an array/list, is identified by an index number. In zero-based arrays, the first stored item in the array is assigned an index number of 0. In one-based arrays, the first stored item in the array is assigned an index number of 1.

var arrayname = [-4, 90, 128, -57, 32, 306, -48]

arrayname[4] = 32

This code defines an array/list that holds multiple integers such as –4 and 90. To retrieve the number 32, you must reference the array/list name (arrayname) followed by the position or index number of the data you want to retrieve. If the index number of the first item is 0, then arrayname[0] would retrieve –4, arrayname[1] would retrieve 90, arrayname[2] would retrieve 128, arrayname[3] would retrieve –57, and arrayname[4] would retrieve 32.

Dictionaries, maps, or hashes

Also called hashes, dictionaries or maps store a key-value pair where a unique key is associated with specific data. To store data, you must store a key followed by the data you want linked to that key, like this:

mydictionary = {‘pi’: 3.14, ‘taxrate’: 0.75}

This code stores the key ‘pi’ that’s linked to the value 3.14. Then it stores the key ‘taxrate’ that’s linked to the value 0.75. Notice that in a dictionary/map/hash, the keys must all be the same data type and the stored values must also be the same data type. In this example, the keys are all strings (‘pi’ and ‘taxrate’), while the values are all decimal numbers (3.14 and 0.75).

To retrieve data, specify the dictionary/map/hash name followed by the key associated with the data to retrieve, like this:

mydictionary[‘pi’] = 3.14

This code says to retrieve the value linked to the ‘pi’ key stored in the dictionary/map/hash called mydictionary. In this example, the value linked to the ‘pi’ key is 3.14.


Stacks are known as “last in, first out” (LIFO) data structures because the last item stored is the first one that can be removed. Can shrink and grow and store any data types. In the real world, stack data types behave like a stack of dishes. The first item you store in a stack gets placed at the bottom. Each additional item stored in a stack buries the first item further and further. To retrieve the bottom item (the first item stored) in a stack, you must retrieve all items stored above it.

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